Interest in bamboo fly rods has enjoyed a renaissance during the last two decades. This has been a welcome development, particularly to those of us who have been at it for quite a while. Trends come and go, of course, but it appears that bamboo fly rods - and what they stand for and represent - won’t be going away anytime soon. If anything, there are far more people who are interested in their history and the finer points of how they’re made.
There are now a number of books on both topics - bamboo fly rod history and construction - which I’m happy to recommend. This page is not meant to be a deep dive on either, but rather a primer, aimed at those who are newer to bamboo fly rods and wondering where to start. As such I'm hoping to try and address three things:
So whether you just found your Grandad’s rod in the attic and have a few questions, or whether you spotted someone fishing a classic cane rod - with that mysterious, beautiful, graceful action - and just want to know more about it: you’ve come to the right place.
First, let’s back up for a little historical context. Bamboo fly rods were a 19th century innovation. Prior to their development the sport of fly fishing utilized tackle that would be scarcely recognizable (let alone wieldable) by modern standards. Enormous wooden rods were the norm for the early part of the 19th century, many of which were weighed in pounds rather than ounces. As with fly fishing in general, rodbuilding techniques were transplanted to America from Europe, and many of the construction methods had their roots in England and Scotland.
“Greenheart” rods are perhaps the most recognizable from the period prior to bamboo. Greenheart has a dark, almost mahogany color, and you can spot it easily if you visit any fly fishing museum and take a swing by the fly rod exhibit. Many rods were well over 10 feet in length, and salmon rods could easily go to 15 or 16 feet. Though some actually cast surprisingly well given their massive bulk, even the most barrel-chested Scotsman would have needed a wee dram after fishing one all day.
It’s no surprise then, that rodmakers of the era would have been keeping their eyes open for ways to make fly rods a little lighter and easier to use. Bamboo was used in a variety of capacities in the first half of the 19th century, often in simple, somewhat rustic forms. Samuel Phillipe, a Pennsylvania gunsmith, is regarded as being the first rod maker to build the hexagonal bamboo rod in 1849, though his reach and reputation were modest.
Hiram Leonard — the godfather of the bamboo fly rod and the creator of the eponymous HL Leonard Rod Company — is widely credited with popularizing bamboo as a superior alternative to wood. While the first attempts used Calcutta bamboo and sanded off the edges where the strips of bamboo came together in order to give it a familiar, round look, over time Hiram recognized that he could produce a stronger rod by leaving more of the outer bamboo - where the strongest fibers are - intact. This, coupled with the adoption of far superior Tonkin cane (so named from its source on the hills surrounding the Gulf of Tonkin in China), helped produce what we would recognize today as a “modern” bamboo fly rod. Though they were still on the large side, at least by contemporary standards, the basics were there. The bamboo fly rod that we know today was born.
Over the years the HL Leonard Rod Company would flourish, alongside a number of other companies and makers, many of which are still sources of admiration and even reverence among bamboo fly rod aficionados. This 150 year old history, and the craftsmanship of the men and women behind it, is a big part of what makes it special.
At the most general level, bamboo fly rods are constructed by taking long strips from the outer part of the bamboo plant — the species Arundinaria Amabilis or sometimes Pseudosasa Amabilis — and gluing them together, often in either quadrate or hexagonal form (pentagonal and heptagonal forms do exist but they are relatively rare). The purpose behind this design is simple: to maximize the use of the bamboo’s “power fibers”, the portion of particularly dense fibers on the outside part of the plant.
As Hiram quickly recognized while working away in his Bangor, Maine workshop in 1869, bamboo is an almost perfect material from which to build a fly rod. Growing hundreds of feet tall on windy hillsides, Tonkin Bamboo had evolved to be both incredibly strong yet also flexible. Indeed, it might be said that the swaying motion of tonkin cane in its natural habitat almost perfectly mimics the angler’s ten-and-two fly casting stroke in his!
The challenge lay in taking advantage of this high-performance part of the plant, achieved by taking the aforementioned strips of bamboo, cutting them in carefully pre-determined tapered sizes, and then gluing those strips back together. This is also where the rodmaker’s design skill, along with a careful attention to detail, would perhaps come most into play.
Construction Basics: Tapers, Nodes, and Ferrules
Ask any rodmaker about the topic of “tapers” and you’d better get comfortable — it’s a topic of great passion and enthusiasm by anyone who has tried to build a fly rod. The “taper” in question is exactly that - how the rod tapers from the handle all the way to the tip. How steep this taper is has a profound impact on the way a rod performs, and makers have been tinkering, modifying, comparing, and developing tapers for as long as bamboo fly rods have been around. Indeed, they can be the difference — and often are the difference — between a rod that functions as a graceful casting tool, and one that might be better used staking up tomatoes in your garden.
Functionally, the taper is what determines the rod’s action - how its mass moves back and forth through a casting plane - and which in turn determines how power is transferred to the fly line at the far end. A well-crafted fly rod with a sensible taper design, and one that maps well to an angler’s natural casting stroke, will allow him or her to throw nice, tight loops. Some actions are deliberately a little slower and more methodical, while some are a little crisper, but either will work well when thoughtfully designed.
Two other critical components to fly rod design — and which tend to be less recognized by the casual observer — are a fly rod’s node placement and the design and quality of the ferrules.
Nodes are natural weak spots in the exterior power fibers of the bamboo (not everything is perfect about bamboo, as it turns out!) which the builder must reckon with to maintain the integrity of the rod. If one puts too many of those nodes in a single place, the risks of breakage or failure increase. Most rodmakers deal with this by distributing them evenly throughout the rod according to a few well-established patterns.
Lastly, there are ferrules, the joints that hold the rod sections together. While there have been a variety of approaches to ferrule design over the last century and a half — from splices, to locking joints, to avoiding them altogether by building one piece rods — the standard modern ferrule plays an important role in fly rod design. Sure they make life a little more portable for the angler, but they also impact the transfer of power through the rod. Well-designed, well-crafted ferrules placed at the right points greatly preserve the natural power and flexibility of the bamboo itself.
Bamboo Fly Rod vs Graphite Fly Rods
For the vast majority of anglers today, graphite will have been the only fly rod material that they’ve ever known. And graphite does have some phenomenal properties, to be sure. For one, the strength-to-weight ratio far surpasses what bamboo could ever achieve, which in turn enables the paper-thin walls of today’s graphite rods (most graphite rods today are almost startlingly light). And secondly, they’re cheap, thanks to inexpensive overseas facilities where most graphite fly rods are made these days - more “manufactured” than “crafted”. You can get a perfectly fishable graphite fly rod for the price of a decent dinner out (though this may be a mixed blessing, as one major concern that’s often discussed among the rodmakers I know who build graphite rods is how today’s low-cost, lifetime warrantee, approach to fly rod manufacturing has created a “race to the bottom” in fly rod quality - a topic for another time).
So what will the angler notice the first time he or she picks up a bamboo fly rod? First, of course, is the slight increase in weight. But once they start casting a bamboo rod, they will undoubtedly notice the more delicate, deliberate casting stroke. Bamboo fly rods tend to feel smoother. Or as it is sometimes said - a graphite fly rod “shoots” while a bamboo fly rod “casts” — a fair description, in my opinion. And best of all, if the rod has been matched to the particular angler — much of what we rodmakers often do is try to create a “bespoke” action for our customers — then that casting action will be all the sweeter.
Secondly, there is the question of fighting a fish. Nothing — and I mean nothing — compares to fighting a healthy, fiesty fish on a bamboo fly rod. Without getting too poetic about it, a bamboo rod does tend to “come alive” with a fish on the other end. For those of us for whom this connection is a big part of what makes fly fishing fun, this is a huge plus.
And lastly, of course, is the matter of craftsmanship, of all of the small touches that go into making a bamboo fly rod a thing of aesthetic beauty, beyond its purely functional dimension. Most quality rodmakers are equal parts engineer and artist and will labor painstakingly over the finish of the rod’s varnish, the guide wraps, the hardware design, or any number of other tiny details that have to work together to create a thing of beauty. That’s something that you just won’t get out of a mass market fly rod.
Craftsmanship and Process
While all bamboo rodmakers approach the rodbuilding process in slightly different ways, the bottom line is that it often takes on the order of 40-80 hours of work to build a quality fly rod. And this doesn’t account for the considerable downtime, waiting for glue to set or varnish to harden. Most serious, full-time rodmakers I know will create only a few rods each year, maybe a dozen or two, depending on their schedules and customer demand.
Once an order is taken, the process entails hundreds of tiny steps to bring a bamboo fly rod to completion, though broadly speaking the process can be split into four phases.
To the uninitiated there are a bewildering collection of names attached to bamboo fly rods. Some are recognized as true masters and widely admired by bamboo rod enthusiasts, while others are less well so, their influence more regional.
Like many crafts, knowledge of building bamboo fly rods has often been passed down from one person to another, creating a number of lineages.
For collectors, the following are some of the most prized makers, loosely grouped by their geography and connection to one another.